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Current Bacteriological Profile of Nosocomial Pneumonia in Adults and State of Resistance to Antibiotics

Zahir. H, Arsalane. L, Mouhib. H, Elghouat. G, Elkamouni. Y, Zouhair. S., Morocco

Background: Nosocomial pneumonia is the leading cause of infection in intensive care. It is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. The main objective of our study was to identify the bacteria involved in nosocomial pneumonia and to determine their antibiotic resistance profile, in order to improve their management and reduce the associated morbidity and mortality.
Methods: This is a retrospective and descriptive study, conducted from April 2015 to March 2018. Only pulmonary infections occurring beyond 48 hours of admission to the intensive care unit have been included.
Results: The incidence of the nosocomial pneumonia was 77%. Gram-negative bacilli were found in 76% of cases, dominated by Acinetobacter baumannii (44%), followed by enter obacteria (24%), most of which was represented by klebsiella pneumoniae (10%). Gram-positive Cocci (13%) were dominated by Staphylococcus aureus (11%). The study of antibiotic resistance, shows a multi-resistance especially for Gram-negative bacilli, which must be taken into consideration by setting up an active prevention strategy.
Conclusion: This alarming finding of virulence and multidrug resistance should lead practitioners to prescribe antibiotics rationally based, preferably, on the data of an antibiogram; this will reduce the selection pressure exerted by a broad spectrum antibiotic, sometimes abusive and inappropriate.

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